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Page Title: Appendix A. Ballistic Testing of Armor Plate, Steel, Wrought High Hardness
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MIL-A-46100D (MR)
w/INT. AMENDMENT 2
APPENDIX A
BALLISTIC TESTING OF ARMOR PLATE, STEEL, WROUGHT HIGH HARDNESS
A.1 SCOPE
A.1.1 This appendix covers the requirements for ballistic testing of high hardness steel
armor plate.
A.2 DEFINITIONS
A.2.1 Fair impact. A fair impact is an impact resulting from the striking of the test plate by
a projectile in normal flight (no yawing or tumbling) and separated from another impact or
the edge of the plate, hole, crack, or spalled area by an undisturbed area of at least two test
projectile diameters.
A.2.2 Witness sheet. A witness sheet is normally a 0.014 inch thick sheet of 5052 H36
aluminum alloy (or a 0.020 inch thick sheet of 2024 -T3 aluminum alloy) placed 6 inches
(+1/2 inch) behind and parallel to the test plate or other ballistic sample.
A.2.3 Complete penetration, protection, CP(P). A protection complete penetration is a
penetration in which the projectile or one or more fragments of the projectile or plate pass
beyond the back of the test plate and perforates the witness plate.
A.2.4 Partial penetration, protection, PP(P). A partial penetration is any impact that is not a
complete penetration.
A.2.5 Gap. The difference in velocity between the high partial penetration velocity and the
low complete penetration velocity used in computing the ballistic limit where the high
partial penetration velocity is lower than the low complete penetration velocity.
A.2.6 V50 protection ballistic limit, BL(P). The protection V50 ballistic limit is defined as
the average of 6 fair impact velocities comprising the three lowest velocities resulting in
complete penetration and the three highest velocities resulting in partial penetration. A
maximum spread of 150 feet per second shall be permitted between the lowest and highest
velocities employed in determination of ballistic limits. In only those cases where the
lowest complete penetration velocity is lower than the highest partial penetration velocity
by more than 150 fps shall the ballistic limit be based on 10 velocities (the 5 lowest
velocities that resulted in complete penetration and the 5 highest velocities that resulted in
partial penetrations). When the 10-round excessive spread, ballistic limit is used, the
velocity spread shall be reduced to the lowest practical level (as close to 150 fps as
possible). When a 10-round ballistic limit is used, this shall be noted in all reports. The
normal up-and-down firing method shall be used in the determination of all BL(P)'s, all
velocities being corrected to striking velocity. In the event that the ballistic limit computed
is less than 30 fps above the minimum required and if a gap (high partial penetration
velocity below the low complete penetration velocity) of 30 fps or more exists, firing shall
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