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3.4.9 Suspension. The vehicle shall be equipped with a full air suspension system with
components having a rated capacity at least equal to the load imposed on each member, measured
at the ground, with vehicle loaded to GVW as specified in 3.2.5. The vehicle shall be provided
with hydraulic double-acting shock absorbers: 2 on the front and 4 on the rear drive axle(s).
Shock absorbers shall also be provided at the rear non-drive axle, if manufacturer's recommended
practice. The suspension design shall be such that the natural frequency of vertical vibration
about any transverse axis shall be less than 1.5 cycles per second at rated capacity for specified
GVW. Outside rear wheels shall be designed and located so that there will be no interference
with the use of tire chains. The air system shall incorporate leveling valves with a time delay
arranged to avoid constant air consumption due to road shocks. The suspension shall be provided
with a mechanism at each wheel to assure lifting of the wheel and axle when jacking the vehicle
from the applicable jacking location (see 3.5.2).
* Air springs. The front axle shall be equipped with four air springs of 8 inches
minimum diameter, or two air springs of 12-1/2 inches minimum diameter. Each rear drive axle
shall be equipped with four air springs of 10 inches minimum diameter, and non-drive rear axle
shall be provided with the manufacturer's standard air springs. All axles shall have none of the
sprung weight carried on anything other than air springs. No other spring medium such as leaf,
coil or rubber springs shall be used in conjunction with air springs. Radius rods and sway bars.
* Radius rods. The front axle shall be provided with not less than four radius rods
to control lateral and longitudinal movement. Radius rods shall transmit driving and braking
forces to vehicle chassis and body. The rear axle tandem assembly shall be provided with not
less than eight radius rods: four to control longitudinal movement and four to control lateral
movement; or the drive axle shall have four radius rods to control lateral and longitudinal
movement. The non-drive axle shall be of an independent or swing arm suspension design
incorporating adequate means to control lateral and longitudinal loads such as upper and lower
"A" frames and an adjustable toe-in link. Each end of the radius rods shall be equipped with
rubber bushings that do not require periodic lubrication.
* Sway bars. Sway bars, of adequate size and strength, shall be incorporated in
both front and rear suspension systems. Transverse front and wish-bone type radius rods at the
rear may be provided for lateral stability.

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